Hypertension and Hypotension: Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention

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The rate at which your blood moves through your body measured against the resistance it faces by your veins and arteries is known as your blood pressure. The blood pressure affects the way your heart and other organs function, which is why it is essential to monitor it on a regular basis. This article will help you understand hypertension and hypotension causes, symptoms, and why they are dangerous.

Hypertension and Hypotension

What is Hypertension?

Hypertension refers to high blood pressure. This is a condition that can take years to develop, and scientists estimate that almost everyone is affected by it. In fact, hypertension is so common in India that over 10 million cases are diagnosed on an annual basis.

What Are the Common Hypertension Symptoms?

You can actually have this condition for many years without realizing it, as there are no specific hypertension symptoms to watch out for. A small population of people sometimes experience headaches when their blood pressure is high, but since headaches are a very general symptom, the underlying condition goes unnoticed even by doctors. This is why it is necessary to visit your general physician every year so that they can measure your blood pressure to determine if everything is as it should be.

What Are the Causes of Hypertension?

Hypertension causes can vary depending upon whether it is primary hypertension or secondary hypertension.

Primary Hypertension:

This form of high blood pressure has no specific causes. Everyone develops it to some extent as they age.

Secondary Hypertension:

This form of high blood pressure is linked with an underlying condition that causes it to develop. Some of the health conditions that can contribute to the development of high blood pressure are:

  • Kidney problems
  • Thyroid problems
  • Adrenal gland tumours
  • Sleep apnea
  • Congenital defects related to blood vessels
  • Medicines such as pain killers and birth control pills
  • Illegal drugs such as amphetamines and cocaine

If you suffer from these hypertension causes, you must be vigilant when it comes to monitoring the same.

What are the Risk Factors for Hypertension?

Certain people are more at a risk of developing hypertension than others. The risk factors include:

  • Family history
  • Age (men develop hypertension by the time they hit 64 years of age while women develop it post 65)
  • Smoking
  • Being obese or overweight
  • Indulging in high-sodium diets
  • Not being physically active
  • Having a low-potassium diet
  • Drinking
  • Stress
  • Chronic conditions like kidney problems, sleep apnea and diabetes.

Why is Hypertension Dangerous?

High blood pressure can lead to many other health complications, which is why it is essential to get an early diagnosis and get started on your hypertension medications. If the hypertension treatment is not administered in time, the following complications can arise:

  • Aneurysms
  • Heart attack
  • Stroke
  • Heart failure
  • Torn blood vessels in the eyes
  • Narrow blood vessels in the kidneys
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Dementia
  • Trouble with memory
  • Trouble with cognitive functions

Now that you know the basics of high blood pressure, it’s time to find out about hypotension causes.

What is Hypotension?

Hypotension refers to low blood pressure. Now, while maintaining a low blood pressure is often recommended by doctors, hypotension is a condition where the blood pressure is abnormally low. In general, a reading under 90/60 falls under the hypotension range which alerts healthcare professionals of this condition.

What are the Common Hypotension Symptoms?

The common hypotension symptoms include:

  • Blurred vision
  • Dizziness
  • Fatigue
  • Fainting
  • Nausea
  • Lack of concentration

Unchecked hypotension can be very dangerous as it can lead to shock, which presents itself with clammy skin, confusion, shallow breathing, and cold body temperature. This condition can be fatal, which is why you must monitor your blood pressure regularly to get hypotension treatment on time.

What are the Hypotension Causes You Should Know About?

Hypotension causes often include underlying conditions that affect the heart rate.

Some of these are:

  • Pregnancy
  • Blood loss
  • Dehydration
  • Heart problems
  • Problems in the endocrine system
  • Septicaemia
  • Anaphylaxis
  • B12 deficiency

Who is Prone to Developing Hypotension?

The following are some of the common risk factors for hypotension:

  • Age
  • Diabetes
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Medicines with alpha blockers
  • Medicines with beta blockers
  • Medicines for erectile dysfunction

Why is Hypotension Dangerous?

When you do not get the condition diagnosed and get your hypotension treatment, you can suffer from regular weakness and dizziness, which can hamper your daily life. Regular hypotension can also impact the amount of oxygen that travels across your body. Consistent lack of oxygen can cause brain and organ damage, which can be fatal or can cause an extreme loss in the quality of life. Hypotension treatment also prevents your body from going into shock, which can be fatal.

A hypotension headache along with blurred vision are some of the key signs to look out for so that you can seek a quick diagnosis of the condition before it affects your health further.

What Can You Do to Prevent These Conditions?

There are certain lifestyle changes you can make to prevent or manage these conditions. They include:

  • Eating a healthy diet. You must ensure that your diet does not have very high amounts of sodium in it, or low amounts of potassium. Ensure that you eat different types of foods, especially whole grains, fruits, lean chicken, fish, and lots of veggies. You can substitute salt with natural soy sauce too.
  • Drink more water as it helps regulate your blood flow.
  • If your blood pressure tends to drop after meals, then you should eat small regular meals that are rich in carbs as they can prevent this from happening.
  • Cut down on drinking as alcohol tends to dehydrate the body, which can affect your heart rate.

Conclusion

Both, hypertension and hypotension can be very dangerous. As they present with little to no discernible symptoms, it is essential to monitor your blood pressure at a clinic or at home (by using an at-home kit) every few months. This is especially important as you age. If you suffer from any hypertension or hypotension causes, it is crucial to keep an eye out for these conditions. The best way to ensure great health is to have a healthy diet, exercise regularly, and drink lots of water to make sure your body gets all the nutrition it needs to function well!

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