“As Prevention is Always Better than Cure” One we should detect problem regarding health well in time so that we can handle and manage it properly. In India few risk factors for diseases are very-2 important and out of them few are modifiable like smoking, stress, obesity etc. but others are not like genetics/hereditary.
Weight: Keep close check on weight. It should neither be underweight nor overweight/Obese
BMI should be kept (19 to 25) if weight is high leads to many complications in future like Hypertension, Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome etc.
1. Lipid Profile:
Screening of lipid profile is very-2 important as it may leads to complications like Heart ailments and metabolic syndrome. It includes HDL-good cholesterol LDL-bad one they should be kept in balance
Triglyceride is also a variety of Lipid having a strong association with Diabetes. If high Triglyceride with uncontrolled Diabetes the chances of Heart disease and Stroke will increase due to Atherogenic Diabetic Dyslipidemia.
2. Blood Sugar Test:
Blood Sugar should be done to screen for Diabetes, especially for individual having family history of Diabetes and being overweight. Fasting Sugar 60-100 mg, Post Prandial (PP) <200 and Random <140 mg. Diagnostic criteria for Diabetes Mellitus (DM) are if Fasting is >126 mg and PP >200 mg. If fasting is 101-125 and PP 141 to 199 mg this condition is called Impaired Glucose Tolerance/Pre-Diabetes stage. These Individuals are prone to develop Diabetes in future.
One reading is not suffice to diagnose DM at least 2-3 occasions blood sugar should be high along with raised HbA1C.
HbA1C is a test to evaluate status of DM in last three months and it should be 6 % and should be kept <7% in well controlled Diabetes patients.
Another test for DM is Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) in which oral Glucose is given and five blood samples are taken with ½ hour interval (i. e. 0, ½, 1, 1&1/2 and 2 hour) It is deranged in Diabetes individuals
Diabetes is notorious disease that may cause Stroke, Heart ailments, Eye damage, Kidney damage, Cardio-vascular damage, repeated infection etc.
3. Liver Function Test (LFT):
Normal recommendation for this test is once in a year which include Bilirubin (Direct and Indirect), Liver transaminases (AST or SGOT and ALT or SGPT), Albumin, Globulin etc. which are useful biomarkers of liver functionality. It is necessary to detect any liver related disorder at early stage itself as the symptoms in the initial stages may not be so profound and can lead to life-threatening complications. Albumin, Globulin and A/G ratio indicate liver functionality, Transaminase directly linked with Hepatic cellular integrity are useful biomarkers which are useful for evaluation/diagnosis and managing liver ailments like fatty liver and Hepato-cellular diseases of any reason.
4. Kidney Function Test:
This test is done to evaluate the proper functioning of the kidneys. Kidney functioning is essential to remove the metabolic waste from the blood, maintain the pH value of the blood, and regulate the electrolyte balance.
Blood sample is drawn to test Urea, Creatinine and BUN (blood urea and Nitrogen) -presence of high levels of BUN, urea and creatinine are more confirmatory for the loss of kidney functioning. Other elements include sodium, potassium, bicarbonates, chlorides, calcium, uric acid etc. are also done, which are deranged in kidney diseases.
High levels of Uric acid in the blood can be an indication of Gout – a condition where the toes (especially great toe) have painful swelling.
Urine Analysis-Urine sample is tested for routine and microscopic analysis
Presence of sugar, albumin, white cells, Red blood cells, casts etc. are indicative of kidney diseases.
Related Read:Early signs of Chronic Kidney Disease
5. Cancer Screening Test:
Cancer mortality is the 2nd largest epidemic in India. Men are more prone to Lung cancer and colorectal cancer in their late 40’s and 50’s and hence detecting it in the early stages can ease treatment by removing precancerous growths before they become malignant. A colonoscopy can be done (to diagnose cancer) which is a painless process not consuming more than 15 minutes.
Prostate cancer is among the leading killers in male with age above 50’s. Getting a test for Prostate – Prostate Specific-Antigen (PSA), is better for evaluation of prostate cancer.
6. Complete Blood Count (CBC):
To evaluate blood picture and reveals Anemia (Decrease level of Hemoglobin) and diseases related with Red blood cells, White blood cells and Platelets including Blood Cancer.
7. X-Ray Chest PA View:
It reveals so many diseases related with bony cage, Heart and Lungs Like bone diseases, Pneumonia, enlarged Heart etc
8. Abdominal Ultrasound:
In which we evaluate structural abnormalities of organs like Gall Bladder, Liver, Pancreas, Spleen, Kidneys, urinary bladder, Prostate etc.
Vascular abnormalities can also be seen specially Aortic Aneurysm (Men, who smoke, are more vulnerable to have this in Indian scenario. This condition is known as Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm which has no symptoms until becoming fatal. Timely ultrasounds can help detect and ensure quality treatment.
In final stage, individual is examined by Physician clinically like Pulse, BP measurement, Respiratory system, CV System, Nervous System, GI System etc.